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  • Orals questions

    Well, since I am still waiting on my next vessel for my second sea phase, I thought I should focus on some orals questions and identify my weaknesses. These are the ones I had trouble with. Plus, it may be useful for some who are soon to sit their orals.

    Just wanted to make sure I selected the right answer.

    COLREGS

    Clear visibility ? You are a PDV

    Q1. PDV on port side initial actions?

    A. Maintain course and speed, stand on with caution.

    Q2. As you get closer, you notice the day signal of a black cylinder, actions?

    A. Under rule 18, we are to give way to a PDV that is CBD ? Broad alteration to stbd, full loop and pass astern.

    Q3. Fishing vessel on port side, nets out more than 150 m ahead, actions?

    A. Alter course to stbd, right around, pass astern.

    Q4. Same fishing vessel, nets astern, actions?

    A. Same answer as before, well astern of the fishing vessel

    Q5. Approaching vessel from about 2 pts abaft the stbd beam, actions?

    A. Now from what I remember, You are to alter to stbd if the vessel if from nearly right ahead to 22.5? abaft the beam. From 22.6? abaft the beam to astern is overtaking.

    So, ?about 2 points? is on the border, but rule 13 states if you are unsure, act accordingly. I am thinking a broad alteration to stbd for this one, however I would like
    some clarification.

    Q6. Sailing vessel is 4 pts abaft your stbd beam who is give way? Why? If you see a cone apex down would the responsibilities change? Sailing vessel overtakes and steady bearing on stbd bow ? actions?

    A. So, the vessel is abaft and past the 22.5 mark. Rule 13 ? ?any vessel overtaking any other shall keep out of the way of the vessel being overtaken?. We are stand on, they are give way. Is that correct?

    Yes, the cone indicates it is now a power driven vessel, but rule 13 still applies, we stand on, they give way. This makes me think I have the first part wrong. Once the sailing vessel has overtaken, we should still stand on, keep our course and speed with caution.

    I think that?s enough for now, hopefully I can get some guidance.

    Thanks in advance.
    "Knowledge is gained through experience and experience is just another name for our mistakes" - Albert Einstein/Oscar Wilde
    "Choose a career that you really enjoy and you will never have to work a single day in life."

    Experience with Container, General Cargo and Cruise vessels.

  • #2
    Originally posted by Lewisscott22 View Post
    Well, since I am still waiting on my next vessel for my second sea phase, I thought I should focus on some orals questions and identify my weaknesses. These are the ones I had trouble with. Plus, it may be useful for some who are soon to sit their orals.

    Just wanted to make sure I selected the right answer.
    Your diligence is commendable.


    COLREGS

    Clear visibility – You are a PDV

    Q1. PDV on port side initial actions?

    A. Maintain course and speed, stand on with caution.
    Yes.

    Q2. As you get closer, you notice the day signal of a black cylinder, actions?

    A. Under rule 18, we are to give way to a PDV that is CBD – Broad alteration to stbd, full loop and pass astern.
    Are you? Does it tell you to give way? Does it tell you to keep out of the way? Read rule 18 again.

    Q3. Fishing vessel on port side, nets out more than 150 m ahead, actions?

    A. Alter course to stbd, right around, pass astern.
    I think you got your directions mixed up there. Furthermore, is a fishing vessel likely to have its nets ahead of itself?


    Q4. Same fishing vessel, nets astern, actions?

    A. Same answer as before, well astern of the fishing vessel
    Why? Why can't you pass ahead of it?

    Q5. Approaching vessel from about 2 pts abaft the stbd beam, actions?

    A. Now from what I remember, You are to alter to stbd if the vessel if from nearly right ahead to 22.5’ abaft the beam. From 22.6’ abaft the beam to astern is overtaking.

    So, “about 2 points” is on the border, but rule 13 states if you are unsure, act accordingly. I am thinking a broad alteration to stbd for this one, however I would like
    some clarification.
    Spot on about assuming you are overtaking. So, why can't you go to port?

    Q6. Sailing vessel is 4 pts abaft your stbd beam who is give way? Why? If you see a cone apex down would the responsibilities change? Sailing vessel overtakes and steady bearing on stbd bow ? actions?

    A. So, the vessel is abaft and past the 22.5 mark. Rule 13 – “any vessel overtaking any other shall keep out of the way of the vessel being overtaken”. We are stand on, they are give way. Is that correct?

    Yes, the cone indicates it is now a power driven vessel, but rule 13 still applies, we stand on, they give way. This makes me think I have the first part wrong. Once the sailing vessel has overtaken, we should still stand on, keep our course and speed with caution.
    Yes the overtaking vessel is required to keep out of the way. You're right about the shape making it a PDV, and you're right about rule 13 still giving it the responsibility to keep out of the way.

    I think that’s enough for now, hopefully I can get some guidance.
    Subtle implications in the wording of the COLREGs have important effects. Focus on learning the steering and sailing rules verbatim. You'll find your Orals easier as a result of that more than anything.

    Don't be afraid of going to Port if it is the most effective way to avoid collision.

    Thanks in advance.
    You're welcome

    Comment


    • #3
      Originally posted by geordie dancer View Post
      Your diligence is commendable.
      Thank you, your guidance is supportive. I am glad that you reminded me that it must be the exact words in the colregs.

      Ok, so rule 18 in more general terms states that you must "keep out the way". But in these circumstances, would you agree with the alteration? Of course, I would relate to rule 8 before doing this.

      This was how the question was worded - A fishing vessel on port side, nets out more than 150 m ahead. Which way the vessel is heading? I do not know.

      I am unsure if it is likely, but I would think if they used day signals to indicate a direction - in any direction - it must have been done before. Regardless, I would want to be at least a nautical mile away from it. With it's nets out, is it engaged in fishing and in that case, under rule 18, are we not to keep out of the way?

      If there was risk of collision, I would alter to stbd and eventually pass astern. If there was no risk of collision, then yes continue. I suppose there was not enough accuracy in the question.

      With regards to Q. 5, I thought acting accordingly meant using the appropriate rule, for example 15 in this case - that's why I altered to stbd. Is acting accordingly in this case only apply within rule 13? I was not assuming I was been overtaken, I was under the impression that it was a crossing situation. Is this wrong?


      Yes, I totally agree with you, the plan is to learn them word for word by the time of the orals (probably one each week) - As you said, particularly 4-19. So far I have learnt 5-8 word for word and questions on them have been easy.

      But as you can guess, it is a lot easier understanding them and having someone to explain it to you.

      Someone I know learnt rule 5, but couldn't explain what a "proper look out" was.

      Thanks for your time, I appreciate it is a large block of text.
      "Knowledge is gained through experience and experience is just another name for our mistakes" - Albert Einstein/Oscar Wilde
      "Choose a career that you really enjoy and you will never have to work a single day in life."

      Experience with Container, General Cargo and Cruise vessels.

      Comment


      • #4
        Remember to include determine if the risk of collision exists etc

        Comment


        • #5
          Originally posted by Lewiscott22
          This was how the question was worded - A fishing vessel on port side, nets out more than 150 m ahead. Which way the vessel is heading? I do not know.

          I am unsure if it is likely, but I would think if they used day signals to indicate a direction - in any direction - it must have been done before. Regardless, I would want to be at least a nautical mile away from it. With it's nets out, is it engaged in fishing and in that case, under rule 18, are we not to keep out of the way?
          Okay, I agree that at the end of the day the examiner can probably stick the fishing vessel's nets 150m towards the sky from the funnel if he likes and arguing about it probably wouldn't help.

          If the VEIF has her nets ahead of her, you want to pass astern of her. If she is to port, in order to pass astern of her you must alter to port.

          Q4: If her nets are astern, why would you want to pass astern of her and risk fouling your prop in her nets? Pass safely ahead of her.

          Originally posted by Lewisscott22
          With regards to Q. 5, I thought acting accordingly meant using the appropriate rule, for example 15 in this case - that's why I altered to stbd. Is acting accordingly in this case only apply within rule 13? I was not assuming I was been overtaken, I was under the impression that it was a crossing situation. Is this wrong?
          Completely. Read rule 13.


          On another thread someone else suggested getting a copy of Cockroft and Lameijer's guide to the collision avoidance regulations. I think that was probably the best piece of advice on this forum for deckies (no, I don't work for the publishers).

          Comment


          • #6
            Originally posted by geordie dancer View Post
            On another thread someone else suggested getting a copy of Cockroft and Lameijer's guide to the collision avoidance regulations. I think that was probably the best piece of advice on this forum for deckies (no, I don't work for the publishers).
            You can get 6th edition free as a pdf off the web. The 7th edition is bloody expensive though

            Comment


            • #7
              You only need to know rule 3 , 5 , 6 and 19 word by word. The rest you should understand and be able to quote certain bits but more importantly you should know what they mean in your own words not parrot-fashion

              Comment


              • #8
                Originally posted by bobofinga View Post
                You only need to know rule 3 , 5 , 6 and 19 word by word. The rest you should understand and be able to quote certain bits but more importantly you should know what they mean in your own words not parrot-fashion
                5 and 6 are done, I agree with 3 and 19 too. What about 2 and 8?
                "Knowledge is gained through experience and experience is just another name for our mistakes" - Albert Einstein/Oscar Wilde
                "Choose a career that you really enjoy and you will never have to work a single day in life."

                Experience with Container, General Cargo and Cruise vessels.

                Comment


                • #9
                  You should most definitely get rule 17 under the hat, it can come up in so many different ways.

                  Comment


                  • #10
                    I was pretty close to failing my OOW orals because I learned rule 3 word for word on the ship, but didn't pay much attention to it during my orals prep, but luckily I managed to get by. I know it's a long way off, but a good habbit to get into is knowing the name of each rule. You sound so much more confident to an MCA examiner if you can say " This is a crossing situation, and as per rule 15 I will take action as such.........."

                    Comment


                    • #11
                      I'm getting a bit confused in my answering of the rules, can someone help explain to me the difference between 'keep clear' and 'keep out of the way'. Is there a difference between these 2 phrases?

                      Comment


                      • #12
                        Hiya, as far as I can see, Keep clear only ever refers to a traffic separation zone or line Keep out of the way of refers to ships

                        Comment


                        • #13
                          Ques: What is marked on the containers for liferafts?

                          ? Makers name or trade mark;
                          ? Serial number;
                          ? Name of Approving Authority;
                          ? Number of persons it is permitted to carry;
                          ? SOLAS;
                          ? Type of emergency pack enclosed;
                          ? Date when last serviced;
                          ? Length of painter;
                          ? Maximum height it can be stowed above the waterline;
                          ? Whether an EPIRB is fitted;
                          ? Launching instructions.
                          Ques: Can you use ARPA to determine/ascertain Risk of Collision?

                          ? Yes, but assumptions shall not be made on the basis of scanty information, so to allow for any errors in the ARPA calculations, I would also take bearings.
                          Ques: How do you determine/ascertain a risk of collision?

                          ? Take a series of visual bearings, Radar bearings or Systematic radar plotting;
                          ? If the compass bearing of an approaching vessel does not appreciably change;
                          ? Note: Even when an appreciable bearing change is evident, particularly when approaching a very large vessel, a vessel towing or when approaching a vessel at close range, a risk of collision can exist.
                          Ques: What are the obligations of the stand-on vessel?

                          ? To stand on and maintain her course and speed;
                          ? When from any cause the stand-on vessel finds herself so close that collision cannot be avoided by the action of the ‘Give-way’ vessel alone, the stand-on vessel shall take such action as will best avoid a collision.

                          Ques: It is clear visibility and you are approaching a bend and hear ‘1 prolonged blast’. What does this signal signify? What is your response?

                          ? The signal signifies that a vessel is approaching the bend from the other side and that her view around the bend is obscured (Rule 34 (e));
                          ? My response would be to also sound ‘1 prolonged blast’ in response to indicate to her that I am aware she is approaching the bend, and I would keep well to the starboard side of the channel as safely can be maintained.
                          Ques: You are in a narrow channel, constrained by your draft. You see a vessel displaying ‘RAM’ lights on your port bow, bearing steady. What is your action?

                          ? Sound 5 short blasts to indicate that you are not sure of her intentions;
                          ? If there is no response, reduce my speed to minimum steerage or if necessary take all way off;
                          ? Wait for other vessel to be clear, and then proceed with caution until well clear.
                          Ques: You have a “Man Overboard” incident in a traffic separation scheme. What would be your actions?

                          ? Release the bridge wing man overboard ‘Smoke Marker’;
                          ? Hit man overboard button on the GPS, take down position;
                          ? Raise the alarm for man overboard (- - -);
                          ? Place lookouts to continuously keep man overboard in sight;
                          ? Raise flag ‘O’, and send a ‘Pan-Pan-Pan’ to warn ships in the immediate vicinity, and also to notify the Coast Station and the VTS;
                          With great caution execute an ‘Elliptical Manoeuvre’ if practicable; and the speed and method of recovery would greatly depend on traffic density, position of vessel before mishap, visibility, state of sea and most importantly response time to initial alarm raised;
                          Ques: What do you know about the visual distress signals?

                          ? The ‘Hand and Parachute Flares’ must be kept in a waterproof container;
                          ? All signals must be supplied with full instructions on safety and use;
                          ? They must not be explosive on ignition;
                          ? The ‘Hand Flares’ must burn for a minimum of 1 minute at 15,000 candela and have a 3 year life;
                          ? The ‘Parachute Flares’ must reach an altitude of 300m, burn for a minimum of 40 seconds at 30,000 candela and have a 3 year life;
                          ? An ‘Orange Smoke Float’ must emit orange smoke for a minimum of 3 minutes and have a life of 3 years;
                          ? A ‘Self Activated MOB Orange Smoke Float’ must emit orange smoke for a minimum of 15 minutes and have a life of 3 years;
                          ? Lifebuoy Lights must light for a minimum of 2 hours at 2 candelas with all round visibility;
                          ? A Lifejacket Light must light for a minimum of 8 hours at 0.75 candelas with all round visibility.

                          What actions would you take in the event of an oil spill?

                          ? Sound the general alarm and cease all bunkering operations.
                          ? Containing the oil spill on deck is the major priority. Form a bund around the spill.
                          ? Execute the SOPEP
                          ? Have oil spill booms ready.
                          ? Inform the appropriate authority.
                          ? Use assistance of oil response teams if required.
                          ? If oil does get over the side, deploy booms, use local assistance, and under no circumstances use any chemical dispersants.
                          ? Clean up under direction of local oil response team commander.
                          ? Log all actions.
                          ? File a report; get independent statements of facts from all involved.

                          Comment


                          • #14
                            Originally posted by Mehrdad View Post
                            Ques: You are in a narrow channel, constrained by your draft. You see a vessel displaying ‘RAM’ lights on your port bow, bearing steady. What is your action?

                            ? Sound 5 short blasts to indicate that you are not sure of her intentions;
                            ? If there is no response, reduce my speed to minimum steerage or if necessary take all way off;
                            ? Wait for other vessel to be clear, and then proceed with caution until well clear.
                            Why are you sounding 5 short blasts? You are CBD, she is RAM, thus you are required to keep out her way - there shouldn't be any doubt.
                            ?Twenty years from now you will be more disappointed by the things you didn?t do than by the ones you did do. So throw off the bowlines, sail away from the safe harbor. Catch the trade winds in your sails. Explore. Dream. Discover.?

                            ? Mark Twain
                            myBlog | @alistairuk | flickr | youtube Views and opinions expressed are those of myself and not representative of any employer or other associated party.

                            Comment


                            • #15
                              Mehrdad is correct. Rule 9 states that any vessel shall not impede the passage of vessel which can only safely navigate within such channel.
                              The bird is the word

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